There has been an increase in the prevalence of Type 2 diabetes (T2D) in recent decades, and cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains the leading cause of death in individuals living with the disease. Clinical evidence suggests that CV damage, in the form of ischemia or heart failure, may be developing earlier than it is recognized, due to the atypical presentation of symptoms.
The pathophysiology of diabetes as a major risk factor for CVD is complex. It has been suggested that an association between poor glucose control and intracellular metabolic changes can result in oxidative stress, low-grade inflammation and endothelial dysfunction, culminating in a progression to ischemia or heart failure.
It is important to examine the involvement of CV risk factors in the morbidity and mortality burden of T2D, and examine the standards of treatment of CV disease comorbidities in patients with T2D. The positive effects seen in CV outcomes trials address the unmet medical needs in CV risk management for patients with T2D.